Karnataka An-Introduction
The State of Karnataka is located within 11.5 degree North and 18.5 degree North latitudes and 74 degree East and 78.5 degree east longitude. It is situated on a tableland where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hill complex, in the Western part of the Deccan Peninsular region of India. The State is bounded by Maharastra and Goa States in the North and North-West; by the Arabian Sea in the West; by Kerala and Tamilnadu States in the South and by the States of Andhra Pradesh in the East. Karnataka extends to about 750 km from North to South and about 400 km from East to West.
Karnataka's total land area is 1,91,791 sq.km, accounting for 5.83 percent of the total area of the country (32.88 lakh sq.km) and ranks eighth among major States in terms of size. As per 2001 Census, the State's population was 527 lakhs. Karnataka occupies Ninth place with regard to population and the density of population as per 2001 Census was 275 persons per sq. km which was lower than the all-India density of 324.
Karnataka State has been divided into four Revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 27 districts, 175 taluks and 745 hoblies/Revenue Circles for administrative purposes. The State has 27,028 inhabited and 2,362 uninhabited villages, 281 towns and urban agglomerations. Bangalore is the sixth largest urban agglomeration out of 23 metropolis, urban agglomerations and cities in India. It is among the fastest growing cities in the world.
Karnataka is endowed with fairly rich mineral wealth distributed more or less evenly all over its territory. It has one of the oldest Geological Survey Department in the Country, started as far back as 1880. The State is endowed with rich deposits of asbestos, bauxite, chromite, dolomite, gold, iron ore, kaolin, limestone, magnesite, Manganese, ochre, quartz and silica sand. It is also the sole producer of felsite, moulding sand (63%) and fuchsite quartzite (57%).

Karnataka is the major gold producing State in the Country with the two major mines located in the districts of Kolar and Raichur. The gold mines at Kolar and Hutti are producing about 3,000 kg of gold, about 84% of countries production per annum. Karnataka is very rich in Iron and Manganese ores. The iron-ores of Bellary-Hospet region are considered to be one of the World's best iron ores. The total reserve of high grade iron ore available in the State are of the order of 1,000 Million tones.

Karnataka has earned international fame for the Ornamental Granites with different hues. It has granite rock's spread over 4200 Sq.kms.
Karnataka accounts for about six percent of the country's surface water resources of 17 Lakh million cubic meters (Mcum) About 40 percent of this is available in the east flowing rivers and the remaining from the west flowing rivers.

There are seven river basins formed by the Krishna, Cauvery, Godavari, West flowing rivers, North Pennar, South Pennar & Palar.
For Meteorological purposes, the State has been divided into three sub-divisions namely (a) Coastal Karnataka (Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada Districts), (b) North Interior Karnataka (Belgaum Bidar, Bijapur, Dharwad, Gulbarga and Raichur Districts) and (c) South Interior Karnataka (the remaining Districts of Bangalore Rural, Bangalore, Bellary, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Kodagu, Hassan, Kolar, Mysore, Mandya, Shimoga and Tumkur Districts).

The State enjoys three distinct climates varying with the seasons. The winter season from January to February is followed by summer season from March to May. The period from October to December forms the post-monsoon season.

The period from October to March, covering the post-Monsoon and winter seasons, is generally pleasant over the entire State except during a few spells of rain associated with north-east monsoon which affects the south-eastern parts of the State during October to December. The months April and May are hot, very dry and generally uncomfortable. Weather tends to be oppressive during June due to high humidity and temperature. The next three months (July, August and September) are somewhat comfortable due to reduced day temperature although the humidity's continue to be very high.
The annual rainfall in the state varies roughly from 50 to 350 cm. In the districts of Bijapur, Raichur, Bellary and Southern half of Gulbarga, the rainfall is the lowest varying from 50 to 60 cm. The rainfall increases significantly in the Western part of the State and reaches its maximum over the coastal belt. The South-West monsoon is the principal rainy season during which the State receives 80% of its rainfall. Rainfall in the winter season (January to February) is less than one percent of the annual total in the hot weather season (March to May) about 70% and in the post-monsoon season about 12%.
About 38724 sq kms (or 20 percent of Karnataka's geographic) are covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved (28.611 sq. km) protected (3,932 sq. km), unclosed (5,748 sq. km), village (124 sq. km) and private (309 sq.km) forests. The percentage of forests area to Geographical area in the State is less than the all-India average of about 23%, and 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy. The area under forests in the neighboring States is as follows: Andhra Pradesh 62 Lakh he (9% of the total area of the country), Maharastra 54 lakh he (8%), Tamilnadu 22 lakh he (3%) and Kerala 11 lakh he (2%).

Karnataka is known for its valuable timbers from the evergreen forests in the Western Ghat region, notably Teak and Rosewood, the richly ornate panels of which adorn the beautiful chambers of the Two Houses of Karnataka Legislature.

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